Artificial Intelligence (AI)

This is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think. Artificial intelligence is a technology that is already impacting how users interact with, and are affected by the Internet. In the near future, its impact is likely to only continue to grow. AI has the potential to vastly change the way that humans interact, not only with the digital world, but also with each other, through their work and through other socioeconomic institutions – for better or for worse.


 Types of Artificial Intelligence (AI):
AI can be classified in any number of ways there are two types of main classification.
Type1:
1.    Weak AI or Narrow AI: It is focused on one narrow task, the phenomenon that machines which are not too intelligent to do their own work can be built in such a way that they seem smart. An example would be a poker game where a machine beats human where in which all rules and moves are fed into the machine. Here each and every possible scenario need to be entered beforehand manually. Each and every weak AI will contribute to the building of strong AI.
2.    Strong AI: The machines that can actually think and perform tasks on its own just like a human being. There are no proper existing examples for this but some industry leaders are very keen on getting close to build a strong AI which has resulted in rapid progress.
Type2:
1.    Reactive Machines: This is one of the basic forms of AI. It doesn’t have past memory and cannot use past information to information for the future actions. Example:- IBM chess program that beat Garry Kasparov in the 1990s.
2.    Limited Memory: AI systems can use past experiences to inform future decisions. Some of the decision-making functions in self-driving cars have been designed this way. Observations used to inform actions happening in the not so distant future, such as a car that has changed lanes. These observations are not stored permanently and also Apple’s Chatbot Siri.
3.    Theory of Mind: This type of AI should be able to understand people’s emotion, belief, thoughts, expectations and be able to interact socially Even though a lot of improvements are there in this field this kind of AI is not complete yet.
4.    Self-awareness: An AI that has it’s own conscious, super intelligent, self-awareness and sentient (In simple words a complete human being). Of course, this kind of bot also doesn’t exist and if achieved it will be one of the milestones in the field of AI.


There are many ways AI can be achived some of them are as follows:

 The most important among them are as follows:

1.    Machine Learning (ML): It is a method where the target(goal) is defined and the steps to reach that target is learned by the machine itself by training(gaining experience).For example to identify a simple object such as an apple or orange. The target is achieved not by explicitly specifying the details about it and coding it but it is just as we teach a child by showing multiple different pictures of it and therefore allowing the machine to define the steps to identify it like an apple or an orange.
2.    Natural Language Processing (NLP): Natural Language Processing is broadly defined as the automatic manipulation of natural language, like speech and text, by software. One of the well-known examples of this is email spam detection as we can see how it has improved in our mail system.
3.    Vision: It can be said as a field which enables the machines to see. Machine vision captures and analyses visual information using a camera, analog-to-digital conversion, and digital signal processing. It can be compared to human eyesight but it is not bound by the human limitation which can enable it to see through walls(now that would be interesting if we can have implants that can make us see through the wall). It is usually achieved through machine learning to get the best possible results so we could say that these two fields are interlinked.
4.    Robotics: It is a field of engineering focused on the design and manufacturing of robots. Robots are often used to perform tasks that are difficult for humans to perform or perform consistently. Examples include car assembly lines, in hospitals, office cleaner, serving foods, and preparing foods in hotels, patrolling farm areas and even as police officers. Recently machine learning has been used to achieve certain good results in building robots that interact socially.(Sophia)
                                   

5.    Autonomous Vehicles: This area of AI has gathered a lot of attention. the list of vehicles includes cars, buses, trucks, trains, ships, submarines, and autopilot flying drones etc.
The fields above in simple terms can be shown as below and we can see why machine learning plays a major role in achieving AI. 


Applications of AI:
Artificial intelligence AI has a huge impact on many of the fields and some of them are mentioned below,

Gaming :

It plays an important role in strategic games like chess, tic tac toe etc. Here the machine should be able to think of multiple possible steps based on heuristic knowledge.

Natural Language Processing:

Able to communicate with the computers that understand human used natural language.

Expert Systems:

There are a few applications which incorporate machine, programming, and some special data to confer thinking and prompting. They give clarification and exhortation to the users.


Vision Systems:

These type of systems are able to understand, interpret and grasp visual input on the computer. Ex: A spying plane or drone takes pictures, which are utilized to make sense of spatial data or guide of the zones and areas.

Speech Recognition:

You will find some systems which are able to understand the language which is used by humans and talk to them. They can even understand the slang, background noise, accent etc.

Handwriting Recognition:

This special software will be able to read the text written either by a pen or stylus on paper or screen respectively. It also understands the letter shapes and will convert it into editable text.

                               

Intelligent Robots:

Robots are one of the best creation by humans. They can do multiple tasks within no time. Though they cannot be alternate to humans but are very efficient when doing any tasks. They are comprised of sensors which detects few physical data like light, heat, temperature, movement, pressure etc just like humans. They also possess good processors and huge memory. The best part about these systems is that they are adaptable to the environment around them.

Advantages:
·         AI would have a low error rate compared to humans, if coded properly. They would have incredible precision, accuracy, and speed.
·         They won't be affected by hostile environments, thus able to complete dangerous tasks, explore in space, and endure problems that would injure or kill us.
o    This can even mean mining and digging fuels that would otherwise be hostile for humans.
·         Replace humans in repetitive, tedious tasks and in many laborious places of work.
·         Predict what a user will type, ask, search, and do. They can easily act as assitants and cna recommend or direct various actions.
o    An example of this can be found in the smartphone.
·         Can detect fraud in card-based systems, and possibly other systems in the future.
·         Organized and manages records.
·         Interact with humans for entertainment or a task as avatars or robots.
o    An example of this is AI for playing many videogames.
o    Robotic pets can interact with humans. Can help w/ depression and inactivity.
o    Can fulfill sexual pleasure.
·         They can think logically without emotions, making rational decisions with less or no mistakes.
·         Can assess people.
o    This can be for medical purposes, such as health risks and emotional state. Can simulate medical procedures and give info on side effects.
§  Robotic radiosurgery, and other types of surgery in the future, can achieve precision that humans can't.
·         They don't need to sleep, rest, take breaks, or get entertained, as they don't get bored or tired.




Disadvantages:
·         Can cost a lot of money and time to build, rebuild, and repair. Robotic repair can occur to reduce time and humans needing to fix it, but that'll cost more money and resources.
·         It's questionable: is it ethically and morally correct to have androids, human-like robots, or recreate intelligence, a gift of nature that shouldn't be recreated? This is a discussion about AI that's popular in the days.
·         Storage is expansive, but access and retrieval may not lead to connections in memory as well as humans could.
o    They can learn and get better with tasks if coded to, but it's questionable as to if this can ever become as good as humans can do such.
§  They cannot work outside of what they were programmed for.
o    They could never, or, at least, seemingly never with our technological perceptions, recieve creativity that humans have.
§  This can prevent sympathizing with emotions for human contact, such as in being nurses. This can also reduce wisdom can understanding.
§  This can prevent common sense occuring. Even if coded with common sense and to learn, it seems hard for them to get as much common sense that humans could.
·         Robots, with them replacing jobs, can lead to severe unemployment, unless if humans can fix the unemployment with jobs AI can't do or severly change the government to communism.
·         As seen partially with smartphones and other technology already, humans can become too dependent on AI and lose their mental capacities.
·         Machines can easily lead to destruction, if put in the wrong hands. That is, at least a fear of many humans.
o    AI as robots can supercede humans, enslaving us.



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