Biometric System


A biometric system is a technological system that uses information about a person (or other biological organism) to identify that person. Biometric systems rely on specific data about unique biological traits in order to work effectively. A biometric system will involve running data through algorithms for a particular result, usually related to a positive identification of a user or other individual. The specific nature of today’s biometric systems is associated with a specific use of the term "biometrics." In general, biometrics is any use of biological data in technology. Biometric systems focusing exclusively on the identification of humans have become the major kind of biometric system in today’s IT world.Governments, businesses and organizations can use biometric systems to get more information about individuals or about a populace as a whole. Many biometric systems are developed for security applications. An airport scanning device, a "bio-password" system, or an internal data gathering protocol is an example of a biometric system that uses identifying data for a security result.


Biometric Security:

Biometric security is a security mechanism used to authenticate and provide access to a facility or system based on the automatic and instant verification of an individual's physical characteristics. Because biometric security evaluates an individual’s bodily elements or biological data, it is the strongest and most foolproof physical security technique used for identity verification. Biometric security is mainly implemented in environments with critical physical security requirements or that are highly prone to identity theft. Biometric security-based systems or engines store human body characteristics that do not change over an individual's lifetime. These include fingerprints, eye texture, voice, hand patterns and facial recognition.An individual's body characteristics are pre-stored in a biometric security system or scanner, which may be accessed by authorized personnel. When an individual walks into a facility or tries to gain access to a system, the biometric scanner evaluates his/her physical characteristics, which are matched with stored records. If a match is located, the individual is granted access.



Types of Biometric Sensor:

Fingerprint Recognition:

Fingerprint Recognition includes taking a fingerprint image of a person and records its features like arches, whorls, and loops along with the outlines of edges, minutiae and furrows. Matching of the Fingerprint can be attained in three ways, such as minutiae, correlation and ridge.


·       Minutiae based fingerprint matching stores a plane includes a set of points and the set of points are corresponding in the template and the i/p minutiae.

·   Correlation based fingerprint matching overlays two fingerprint images and association between equivalent pixels is calculated.

·       Ridge feature based fingerprint matching is an innovative method that captures ridges, as minutiae based fingerprint capturing of the fingerprint images is difficult in low quality.

Face Recognition:

Face recognition system is a one type of biometric computer application which can identify or verify a person from a digital image by comparing and analyzing patterns. These biometric systems are used in security systems. Present facial recognition systems work with face prints and these systems can recognize 80 nodal points on a human face. Nodal points are nothing but end points used to measure variables on a person’s face, which includes the length and width of the nose, cheekbone shape and the eye socket depth. 



Face recognition systems work by capturing data for the nodal points on a digital image of a person’s face and resulting data can be stored as a face print. When the conditions are favorable, these systems use a face prints to identify accurately. Currently, these systems focus on smartphone applications which include personal marketing, social networking and image tagging purposes. Social sites like FB uses software for face recognition to tag the users in photographs. This software also increases marketing personalization. For instance, billboards have been designed with integrated software that recognizes the ethnicity, gender and estimated age of onlookers to deliver targeted marketing.

Iris Recognition:

Iris recognition is a one type of bio-metric method used to identify the people based on single patterns in the region of ring shaped surrounded the pupil of the eye. Generally, the iris has a blue, brown, gray or green color with difficult patterns which are noticeable upon close inspection. Please follow the below link to know more about iris recognition technology.



Voice Recognition:

Voice recognition technology is used to produce speech patterns by combining behavioral and physiological factors that can be captured by processing the speech technology.The most important properties used for speech authentication are nasal tone, fundamental frequency, inflection, cadence. Voice recognition can be separated into different categories based on the kind of authentication domain, such as a fixed text method, in the text dependent method, the text independent method and conversational technique.

Signature Recognition:

Signature recognition is a one type of biometric method used to analyze and measure the physical activity of signing like the pressure applied, stroke order and the speed. Some biometrics are used to compare visual images of signatures. Signature recognition can be operated in two different ways, such as static and dynamic. In static mode, consumers write their signature on paper, digitize it through a camera or an optical scanner. This system identifies the signature examining its shape.In dynamic mode, consumers write their signature in a tablet which is digitized, that obtains the signature in real time. Another option is the gaining by means of stylus-operated PDAs. Some biometrics also operate with smart-phones with a capacitive screen, where consumers can sign using a pen or a finger. This type of recognition is also known as “on-line”.

Advantages and Disadvantages:


Advantages:

·         Improved security.
·         Improved customer experience.
·         Cannot be forgotten or lost.
·         Reduced operational costs.

Disadvantages:

·         Environment and usage can affect measurements.
·         Systems are not 100% accurate.
·         Require integration and/or additional hardware.
·         Cannot be reset once compromised.



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